Douglas-fir is one of the world’s strongest, straightest, fastest-growing trees. It is the most abundant tree in the Northwest, and a major commercial lumber species in North America. The wood is relatively heavy, hard, strong, and resilient under stress.

Ponderosa pine bark matures from very dark brown to a light reddish brown, becomes very thick, and, with all its plates and scales, looks like jigsaw puzzle pieces. The bark has a distinctive vanilla smell. The five to eleven inch long needles grow in bunches of three. The back of each scale on the cone is armed with a sharp spike.